How to Develop a Board of Directors for a Nonprofit in Montana

A board of directors is a requirement for the operation of a Montana nonprofit entity. This elected group serves as the governance of your organization in everything from finances to the nonprofit’s mission.

Electing the right personalities to your board of directors is essential for your organization’s success. This guide will help you select your first board or grow an established board to better serve your nonprofit.

Check out our other guides for a look at how to form a nonprofit organization or how to select a board of directors in other states.

Recommended: Northwest can help form your nonprofit for you for $29 + state fees.

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Montana Board of Directors Requirements

The Montana Nonprofit Corporation Act, Section 35-2-114, defines a nonprofit board of directors as:

(4) “Board” or “board of directors” means the board of directors except that a person or group of persons is not the board of directors because of powers delegated to that person or group pursuant to 35-2-414.

The number of required directors on the board is laid out in Section 35-2-415:

(1) All directors must be individuals. The articles or bylaws may prescribe other qualifications for directors.

(2) A board of directors must consist of three or more individuals, with the number specified in or fixed in accordance with the articles or bylaws.

(3) The number of directors may be increased or decreased, but to not fewer than three, from time to time by amendment to or in the manner prescribed in the articles or bylaws.

Putting It Into Practice

A Montana nonprofit’s board of directors works as a support system for the organization. Its duties include financial management, structural guidance, the hiring of executive directors, and much more. While the board typically isn’t involved in day-to-day operations, it plays an active role in maintaining the well-being of the organization as a whole, its effectiveness, and its financial health.

A 501(c)(3) eligible nonprofit board of directors in Montana MUST:

  • Have a minimum of three unrelated board members
  • Elect the following members: president, treasurer, and secretary
  • Two thirds of the members must be independent

Recommended: Read our full guide on How to Start a Nonprofit in Montana.

What Is the Function of the Board of Directors?

The Nonprofit Corporation Act, Section 35-2-414 establishes the role of the board of directors in the following manner:

(1) Each corporation must have a board of directors.

(2) Except as provided in this chapter or subsection (3), all corporate powers are exercised by or under the authority of the board, and the affairs of the corporation managed under the direction of its board.

(3) The articles may authorize a person or persons to exercise some or all of the powers that would otherwise be exercised by a board. To the extent authorized, a person authorized under this subsection has the duties and responsibilities of the directors and the directors must be relieved from the duties and responsibilities to that extent.

Putting It Into Practice

Before forming your Montana nonprofit’s board of directors, it’s important to understand the role this group plays in the success of your organization. The general responsibilities of a board include:

  1. Enforcing the Organization’s Mission and Purpose: The foundation of any nonprofit is its mission so a board’s chief task involves upholding that mission as well as the organization’s purpose.
  2. Hiring a CEO/Executive Director: While your board of directors plays an instrumental role in the success and effectiveness of your nonprofit, it doesn’t participate in the daily operations. That makes it vital for the board to hire a CEO or executive director who will provide effective, day-to-day leadership.
  3. Incorporating New Members: A board also must source and incorporate new board members capable of effectively upholding the organization’s values.
  4. Assessing the Allocation of Funds: Careful distribution of assets within an organization ensures all areas receive adequate funding and thus supports the success of each aspect of a nonprofit’s mission.
  5. Generating Funds and Ensuring Financial Stability: Alongside verifying the appropriate distribution of funds, the board also has a responsibility to generate more assets to create a solid foundation for the nonprofit’s long-term financial stability.
  6. Supporting and Evaluating the CEO/Executive Director: A nonprofit’s board of directors not only serves as a support system for the CEO/executive director, but also assesses their job performance.
  7. Ensuring the Organization Follows Legal and Ethical Practices: It comes as no surprise that upholding the ethics of a nonprofit is essential to its success in achieving its mission. In this case, the board’s task involves ensuring the organization consistently follows legal and ethical practices across its operations.
  8. Generating a Positive Public Image: Building trust within the community not only attracts private investors, but also develops credibility among community members who may use the services your organization offers.
  9. Acknowledging and Addressing Conflicts of Interest: The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requires nonprofits to develop a written conflict of interest policy that the organization’s board of directors will enforce. This prevents any board member from using their position in order to serve their personal interests.

Additional Legal Responsibilities

In Montana, a nonprofit’s board of directors also must fulfill certain legal responsibilities. The three most common legal responsibilities of a Montana nonprofit include duty of care, duty of loyalty and duty of obedience.

  • Duty of Care: This involves making appropriate use of the assets held by the organization. Specifically, board members must ensure the use of such funds promotes the good of the organization and those who benefit from its services.
  • Duty of Loyalty: This involves acknowledging and disclosing any conflicts of interest as well as making decisions that benefit the nonprofit as a whole rather than a single board member.
  • Duty of Obedience: Board members also must ensure the nonprofit adheres to all applicable laws and regulations while operating under the mission and bylaws that form its foundation.

Developing Your First Board of Directors

If you’re still in the process of developing your Montana nonprofit entity, choosing the right board members is key to ensuring the effectiveness and stability of your organization. Here are a few tips to help you get started:

  • Solidify Roles. Designating functional roles for individual board members — outside of your elected officer’s roles — can improve the board’s overall effectiveness and functionality.
  • Develop and Commit to Bylaws. Creating a set of bylaws to uphold the mission of your organization creates a strong foundation to guide board members’ decision-making. In addition, state law may require Montana nonprofits to develop bylaws.
  • Prioritize Your Mission. Another beneficial strategy when choosing board members is to seek candidates with a passion for your organization’s mission and goals.
  • Acknowledge Any Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts of interest will inhibit a board member’s ability to effectively uphold the values and best interests of your organization. That makes it extremely important to assess potential or existing conflicts of interest when evaluating board members for your nonprofit.

Filling Board Vacancies

Vacancies in a Montana nonprofit’s board of directors can be filled according to Section 35-2-424 of the Nonprofit Corporation Act:

(1) Unless the articles or bylaws provide otherwise and except as provided in subsections (2) and (3), if a vacancy occurs on a board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors:

(a) (i) the members, if any, may fill the vacancy; or

(ii) if the vacant office was held by a director elected by a class, chapter, organizational unit or by region or other geographic grouping, only members of the class, chapter, unit, or grouping are entitled to vote to fill the vacancy if it is filled by the members;

(b) the board of directors may fill the vacancy; or

(c) if the directors remaining in office constitute fewer than a quorum of the board, they may fill the vacancy by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the directors remaining in office.

(2) Unless the articles or bylaws provide otherwise, if a vacant office was held by an appointed director, only the person who appointed the director may fill the vacancy.

(3) If a vacant office was held by a designated director, the vacancy must be filled as provided in the articles or bylaws. In the absence of an applicable article or bylaw provision, the vacancy may not be filled by the board.

(4) A vacancy that will occur at a specific later date, by reason of a resignation effective at a later date under 35-2-420(2) or otherwise,

Putting It Into Practice

When electing new members to your Montana nonprofit’s board of directors, focus on finding individuals dedicated to your organization’s mission. Here are a few tips to consider as you begin your search:

  • Look to Your Volunteers. Volunteers who stand out can make excellent additions to a board of directors. These individuals already dedicate their time and energy to your organization and most likely will bring that same dedication and goodwill to your board.
  • Explore Candidates Among Loyal Donors. Donors represent another group to consider when electing new board members because they create the financial foundation for your organization. That means they have a track record of dedicating time and money to ensuring the success and sustainability of your nonprofit.
  • Expand Your Search. Diversifying your search to include outside groups can prove effective in creating a well-rounded board of directors.

What Are Elected Officers?

Section 35-2-439 further outlines the election of officers to the board:

(1) Unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, a corporation has a president, a secretary, a treasurer, and any other officers appointed by the board.

(2) The bylaws or the board shall delegate to one of the officers responsibility for preparing minutes of the directors’ and members’ meetings and for authenticating records of the corporation.

(3) A person may simultaneously hold more than one office in a corporation.

Putting It Into Practice

Elected officers are members of the board with assigned roles focused on regulating the day-to-day activities of the organization and maintaining its success. Each position should have a clear role defined in the organization’s bylaws.

The board of directors is required to nominate elected officers in Montana. Elected officer roles can not only prove helpful in ensuring the effectiveness of the board of directors, but also provide a foundation of leadership.

The three elected officers required for nonprofits in Montana include:

  • President: As the leader of the board, the president commonly has authority over key activities like signing contracts and hiring or firing employees. This role differs from the CEO/executive director position, which the board typically hires after assigning the president role.
  • Treasurer: The treasurer is responsible for evaluating the financial health of the organization by keeping track of receipts and spending.
  • Secretary: This individual serves as the organizer of the board meetings, which may include scheduling the meetings, informing board members of the meeting schedule, planning the meeting agendas, and recording meeting minutes.


Forming a board of directors is an essential part of creating and operating a nonprofit in Montana. Ideally, this group will advocate for your organization’s best interests in everything from finances to public relations. To form or expand a board of directors that will best represent your nonprofit’s needs, search for members who will uphold your organization’s mission and purpose.

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